Literacy Assessment – Linked to Purpose and Audience

 

Rationale of assessment in literacy

We need to find a way to judge, in a meaningful way, how successful a piece of writing is.  The success of a piece of writing is inextricably linked to whether that piece of writing has met its purpose and has had the intended effect on the audience.

 The way we assess needs to be linked to the way we teach and we therefore the children need to understand what we think we mean by successfully meeting the purpose and having the intended effect on the reader.

Key message of new curriculum:

Mastery of key concepts and ideas.  I see this as mastery of writing for a specific purpose and audience as that is essentially the life skill of writing. Grammar, punctuation and spelling will be tested separately but essentially grammar and punctuation change the meaning and ability to understand a piece of writing so they will also be integrally judged within the writing assessment.

 

 

Foundation Stage

 

‘Children’s later writing is based on skills and understandings which they develop as babies and toddlers.  Before they can write, they need to learn to use spoken language to communicate.’

30-50 months

PSED

Making relationships

Initiates conversations

Self-confidence and self-awareness

Confident to talk to other children when playing, and will communicate freely about own home and community

C+L Speaking

Beginning to use more complex sentences to link thoughts (e.g. using and, because)

Can re-tell a simple past event in the right order

Uses talk to connect ideas, explain what is happening and anticipate what might happen next, recall and relive past experiences.

Uses a range of tenses

Uses intonation, rhythm and phrasing to make the meaning clear to others

Builds up vocabulary that reflects the breadth of their experiences.

Literacy: Writing

Sometimes gives meaning to marks as they draw and paint

Physical Development

Holds pencil between thumb and two fingers, no longer using whole hand grasp.  Holds pencil near point – good control.

 

Draws lines and circles.  Can copy some letters e.g letters from their name.

40-60 months

PSED

Making relationships

Initiates conversations, attends to and takes account of what others say

 

Explains own knowledge and understanding, and asks appropriate questions of others.

 

Confident to speak to others about own needs, wants, interests and opinions.

C+L Speaking

Extends vocabulary, exploring the meaning and sounds of new words.

 

Links statements and sticks to a main theme or intention

 

Uses talk to organize, sequence and clarify thinking, ideas, feelings and events

 

Introduces a storyline or narrative into their play.

Literacy: Writing

Can segment the sounds in simple words and blend them together.

 

Links sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.

 

Uses some clearly identifiable letters to communicate meaning, representing some sounds correctly and in sequence.

 

Writes own name and other things such as labels, captions.

 

Attempts to write short sentences in meaningful contexts.

Physical development

Begins to form recognisable letters.

 

Most letters are correctly formed.

Early Learning Goals (exit point of reception)

Children express themselves effectively, showing awareness of listener’s needs.  They use past, present and future forms accurately when talking about events and that have happened or are to happen in the future.  They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events.

Children use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which match their spoken sounds.  They also write some irregular common words.  They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others.  Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible.

They handle equipment and tools effectively, including pencils for writing.

 

The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children.  They should not be used as checklists.  The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest typical range of development.

 

 

KEY STAGE 1

Basic writing skills – needed for every piece of writing – Essentially: Does it make sense?  Building the foundations of writing for audience and purpose by making sure writing makes sense.

 

Words are demarcated with finger spaces

 

Phonetic spelling means the reader can read most words

 

Writer can compose individual sentences orally and then write them down

 

Writer can use sentences with different forms

Statement   question   exclamation   command

Punctuation is used to make the writing clear for the reader

.    ,   ?    “Speech”

Writing makes sense when read by the author

 

Punctuation is used to add interest for the reader

!  …  ( )

Writing is understood by the reader without needing clarification

 

Sentences are sequenced to form a narrative

 

The writing encapsulates what the writer wants to say

 

Writer can re-read to check it makes sense

 

Writer can make appropriate corrections

Basic punctuation    Missing words   Verb tense inaccuracies  Improving vocab

Punctuation is accurate

 

Writer can write using personal experience to add interest to the reader

 

Writer can write about real events

 

Writer can choose words to describe

 

Writer can adopt correct style for the purpose chosen

Inform   Entertain   Instruct   Persuade   Complain

Writer can have an effect on the reader

Interest /  Laugh out loud / Do something/ Find something out

Writer adopts written standard English when appropriate to the purpose

 

 

LOWER KEY STAGE 2

 

Generic writing skills

The writing makes sense (KEY SKILL)

 

 

The writing is grammatically correct

Pronouns used to avoid repetition

Nouns used to avoid repetition

 

The writing has a clear viewpoint

Authorial voice (linked to tone) is clear

 

Writing is structured to allow the reader to navigate the writing/text

Overall writing can be followed

 

The ideas flow

 

Punctuation is used accurately to clarify meaning

 

Sentences with more than one clause used

 

Wider range of conjunctions used to increase maturity of the writing

 

Consideration has been given to how to structure the text to help the reader

 

Paragraphs are used to group ideas

 

Paragraphs are used to organise ideas

 

Ideas are linked across paragraphs

 

Openings and endings of paragraphs have been well chosen to support intended effect on the reader

 

The writing is visually appealing to the reader and appropriate to purpose

 

Paragraphs are organised around a theme

 

Organisational and presentational devices used to guide the reader

 

Use of a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs

 

Paragraphs if used link to allow the writers ideas to build

 

Well thought out ending leaves the reader feeling satisfied

 

Vocabulary

Some words are well chosen

 

General words are well chosen

 

There is verbal energy in the piece

 

A range of varied vocabulary is attempted for effect

 

A range of effective vocabulary is used for effect

 

A range of effective vocabulary is consistently used throughout for effect

 

Clear love of words – vocabulary magic!

 

Writer can discuss writing similar to that which they are planning

Explanation of structural choices

 

Explanation of vocabulary choices

 

Explanation of grammar choices

 

Evaluate and edit

Y3/4

Writer can assess the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing

 

Writer can suggest improvements to their writing

 

Writer can make changes to grammar to improve accuracy (including confident use of conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions,)

 

Writer can make changes to vocabulary to improve accuracy (including confident use of prefixes, a/an, word families of common words, the plural/possessive –s, Standard English forms for verb inflections, the present perfect form of verbs, expanded noun phrases, fronted adverbials)

 

Writer can make changes to punctuation to improve accuracy (including confident use of the rules of direct speech, apostrophe for plural possession, commas after fronted adverbials)

 

Writer can use structural devices to improve accuracy (such as headings and sub-headings, paragraphs organised around a theme,  appropriate pronoun or noun choice to aid cohesion)

 

Writer can proof-read for spelling errors

 

Writer can proof-read for punctuation errors

 

Y5/6

 

Writer can make changes to vocabulary to enhance effects and clarify meaning (including confident use of prefixes and suffixes, synonym/antonym groupings, levels of formality)

 

Writer can make changes to grammar to enhance effects and clarify meaning (including confident use of adverbials, modal verbs, relative clauses, ellipsis, layout devices, cohesive devices, passive and the subjunctive)

 

Writer can make changes to punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning (including confident use of parentheses, commas for effect, bullet points, semi-colons, colons, the dash and hyphen to avoid confusion and alter meaning)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UPPER KEY STAGE 2

Blank - Purpose

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writer understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

 

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Writer has clearly planned, developing initial ideas

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate grammar used

 

Appropriate vocabulary used

 

Appropriate punctuation used

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inform

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writing understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer has clearly planned developing initial ideas

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Appropriate grammar used

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate vocabulary used

Reader has been appropriately educated on desired area

Appropriate punctuation used

Reader has maintained interest in information to the end

Opening paragraph highlights  summary of information

Reader will remember the key pieces of information

Information is presented clearly

Reader is in receipt of all key information so that they can make an informed choice about any action they choose to take

Information flows and is linked to support readers understanding

 

Information is given in a balanced manner so as not to alarm

 

 

 

 

Complain

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writing understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer has clearly planned developing initial ideas

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Appropriate grammar used

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate vocabulary used

Reader has a clear understanding of the event/issue

Appropriate punctuation used

Appropriate tone used for intended audience (conspiratorial/persuasive/gentle/angry…)

Clear focus on the issue – set out clearly in opening paragraph

Appropriate level of outrage or passion

Viewpoint is maintained throughout

Reader is clear on the desired outcome of the letter –  action the writer wants them to take

Controlled word choice to seem measured

Reader is still on-side by the end of the piece

Clear explanation of background/events surrounding complaint

 

 

 

Entertain

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writing understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

 

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Writer has clearly planned developing initial ideas

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate grammar used

Reader had some reaction to the writing laughed out loud, smiled, paused, shook their head, tensed

Appropriate vocabulary used

Reader was hooked in from the start

Appropriate punctuation used

Reader became invested in the subject/character/storyline so they didn’t want to put it down

Writing flows through paragraphs – paragraphs used to navigate (show passing of time etc)

Regardless of length of piece the reader engaged to the end

Writer has created interest through description/atmosphere/interesting events

Reader will want to discuss ideas/feelings/thoughts after reading

Devices used to lead reader through the narrative – flashbacks, repetition, key

Reader has been manipulated and taken on a journey – ups and downs

Key characters/settings/ideas described in an interesting/original way to bring the piece to life

Reader will be left with something – feeling/message/thought

Writing is structured towards a good quality ending

 

 

 

Persuade

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writing understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

 

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Writer has clearly planned developing initial ideas

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate grammar used

Reader is left with a passion/strong urge to act

Appropriate vocabulary used

Reader has in some way changed their mind/ feels more strongly in support than they did before

Appropriate punctuation used

Correct level of pushiness depending on audience

Clear message given of the writers point of view

Reader/audience would be able to persuade others from reading/hearing it

Strong opinions presented

Reader is convinced that you are right

Back up opinion with facts with evidence

Audience feels respected even if the persuasion was forceful

Structured to present measured approach

 

 

 

Review

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writing understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

 

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Writer has clearly planned developing initial ideas

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate grammar used

Reader is left with a clear emotion (humour/regret/desire to act or emulate)

Appropriate vocabulary used

Reader has in some way changed their mind/ feels more strongly in support or against than they did before/  is convinced that you are right

Appropriate punctuation used

Tone is appropriate to audience

Strong positive/negative opinions presented

Reader/audience would be able to persuade others from reading/hearing it/ feels educated in key facts

Convey facts about an item as evidence

 

Writer may vent/rant/praise as appropriate to task

 

Structured to support tone

 

Appropriate punchy/memorable ending

 

 

 

Connect

Style matched to Purpose

 

 

 

Style suited to intended audience

 

 

 

Writing understands purpose for their writing

Writer can identify the audience for their writing

The piece is believable

Reader can follow the writing

 

Appropriate presentational and organisational devices used to guide the reader

Writer can use similar writing as a model for their own

The reader has a clear idea of writer’s message

Writer has clearly planned developing initial ideas

Appropriate level of formality used for the audience

Appropriate grammar used

Reader is left feeling special/touched/appreciated by the personal tone of the text

Appropriate vocabulary used

Correct level of emotion depending on audience

Appropriate punctuation used

Reader is involved in a shared moment

Writing will be emotional/personal/chatty in tone

Reader understands the ‘privacy’/’personal’ nature of the text

Writing will demonstrate closeness/desire to maintain or begin a relationship

Reader will be left with something – feeling/message/thought

Writing may contain humour

Reader will understand implied/missing/hidden meanings

Writing may present a sense of duty

 

Writer demonstrates/reminds the reader of a shared experience